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一流の大人(ビジネスマン、政治家、リーダー…)として知っておきたい、教養・社会動向を意外なところから取り上げ学ぶことで“気付く力”を伸ばすブログです。目下、データ分析・語学に力点を置いています。今月(2022年10月)からは多忙につき、日々の投稿数を減らします。

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今日の英語(20221112)

 今日勉強した英語の中で間違えたことや調べたことをメモしておく。

コロケーション

 今回は古沢寛行・小宮山浩光・レコード,カービィ(2004)「コロケーション徹底演習II」(泰文堂)PP. 115-11を参照。


 今回、間違えたのは以下の表現:

  702. On the morning of the election, a clamorous crowd surrounded the Governor's mansion and greeted him on his way to the polls.
    選挙の朝、騒々しい群衆が知事の邸宅を囲み、投票所に向かう知事に挨拶した。
  703. When one tries to understand the vastness of the universe, both in time and space, we can only feel astounded .
    時間と空間において、宇宙の広大さを理解しようとすると、我々はただ肝をつぶす程の驚きを感ずるのみである。
  704. For centuries inventors have tried to make a perpetual motion machine, but this seems to defy the basic laws of physics.
    何世紀もの間、発明家たちは永久運動の機械を作ろうと試みたが、このことは物理学の基本法則に公然と逆らっているように思える。
  705. All but one member of the jury thought the defendant was guilty, but the decision had to be unanimous for him to be convicted.
    陪審団の一人を除いて全員が被告が有罪と思ったが、彼を有罪にするには評決が全員一致でなければならなかった。
  706. When asked what music he preferred, he responded that he had always been partial to Mozart.
    どんな音楽が好きかと聞かれて、彼はいつもモーツァルトが特に好みだったと答えた。
  707. She dressed suggestively and played up to him but he paid her only scant attention.
    彼女は挑発的な服装をして彼に媚びへつらったが、彼は彼女に僅かな関心を示したに過ぎなかった。
  709. When Tommy was still an adolescent school boy, he was making his own money as a pianist in a local restaurant.
    まだ青春期の学生だった頃、トミーは地元のレストランでピアノを弾いて自分の金を稼いでいた。
  710. Juvenile delinquency is on the increase not only in North America but also in Asia.
    青少年犯罪は北米だけでなく、アジアでも増加している。
  712. The man had been in and out of prison all his life, mostly due to his surly nature, which often led to violence.
    その男は、粗っぽい性格のため、よく暴力沙汰を引き起こしたが、終生刑務所を出たり入ったりしていた。
  713. She was not what I would call highly intelligent but very shrewd when it came to getting what she wanted out of people.
    彼女は私に言わせるとそれほど頭の良い女性ではなかったが、欲しいものを人から手に入れることにかけては非常に抜け目が無かった。
  714. My brother was the kind of kid who always seemed completely heedless of any danger. He would try anything.
    私の弟はどんな危険にもいつも全くもって無頓着に思えるような子供であった。彼は何でもやろうとした。
  715. No matter how bleak things got, the little girl always seemed blithe and free from care.
    どのようにがっくりする事態になっても、その少女はいつも陽気で心配がないように見えた。
  718. Stalin shattered the hopes of the Communist Revolution with his brutal treatment of any and all dissenters. It is said that millions of Russians were slaughtered.
    スターリンはありとあらゆる反体制者を残虐に扱って共産主義革命の期待を打ち砕いた。何百万人というロシア人が虐殺されたと言われる。
  719. The wires in this machine are color-coded to designate their different functions.
    この機会の中の敗戦は、それぞれの異なる働きを示すため色付けして区別してある。
  720. Understanding the basic human genome is considered indispensable to many kinds of genetically-based medical research.
    基本的な人のゲノムを理解することは、多くの種類の遺伝子に基づく医療研究に必要不可欠である。
  722. Neon is an element that will not combine easily with other elements; therefore, it is considered an inert element.
    ネオンはほかの元素と容易に結合することのない元素である。そのため不活性元素と考えられている。
  723. He was very sociable and loved to spend his evenings in congenial conversation with friends.
    彼はとても交際好きで夕暮れ時を友達との楽しい語らいで過ごすのが好きだった。
  724. His room was so cluttered with dirty clothes, books and toys, that his mother couldn't even open his door to collect the laundry.
    彼の部屋は汚れた衣類、本およびおもちゃで足の踏み場もないほど散らかっていたので、彼の母親が洗濯物を集めようとしてもドアを開けることさえできなかった。
  725. Education did not become compulsory in America until 1918.
    米国では1918年まで教育は義務ではなかった。

英文解釈

 今回は伊藤和夫(2017)「英文解釈教室 新装版」(研究社)

P. 103の同格構文について*1

  In all the history of the human race there have been only few thousand real men. And the rest of us—what are we? Teachable animals.
  人類の全史において真の人間はわずか数千人しかいなかった。では残りの人間—すなわち我々は何なのか。教えると学ぶ動物である。
  He that can discern the loveliness of things, we call him a poet.
  ものの美しさを認めることのできる人間、そうした人のことを詩人と呼ぶ。
  Good health and physique, cheerfulness and a desire to help others, all play a big part in making happiness and prosperity.
  健康で丈夫な体、快活さと他人を助けたいと思う願望、これらすべてが幸福と繁栄を生むのに大きな役割を担う。

辞書を引いた語彙

 辞書は

またはを引いています。

単語

語彙
発音

記号
意味・内容
調べた理由
hushed [hʌʃt] 1. (of a place) quiet because nobody is talking; much quieter than usual

2. ​[usually before noun] (of voices) speaking very quietly
意味
clamorous [ˈklæmərəs] 1. (especially of a lot of people or animals) making a loud noise

2. ​(of a lot of people) making demands for something
意味
apathetic [ˌæpəˈθetɪk] showing no interest or enthusiasm 意味
vastness [ˈvɑːstnəs] the extremely large area, size or amount of something 意味
astounded [əˈstaʊndɪd] very surprised or shocked by something, because it seems very unlikely 意味
assuaged [əˈsweɪdʒ] assuage something to make an unpleasant feeling less severe 意味
haphazard [hæpˈhæzəd] with no particular order or plan; not organized well 意味
precarious [prɪˈkeəriəs] 1. (of a situation) not safe or certain; dangerous

2. likely to fall or cause somebody to fall
意味
perpetual [pəˈpetʃuəl] 1. [usually before noun] continuing for a long period of time without stopping or being interrupted

2. ​[usually before noun] frequently repeated, in a way that is annoying

3. [only before noun] (of a job or position) lasting for the whole of somebody’s life
意味
unanimous [juˈnænɪməs] 1. if a decision or an opinion is unanimous, it is agreed or shared by everyone in a group

2. unanimous (in something) if a group of people are unanimous, they all agree about something
意味

発音
anomalous [əˈnɒmələs] different from what is normal or expected 意味
scant [skænt] hardly any; not very much and not as much as there should be 意味
scarce [skeəs] ​if something is scarce, there is not enough of it and it is only available in small quantities 意味
sparse [spɑːs] only present in small amounts or numbers and often spread over a large area 意味
spontaneous [spɒnˈteɪniəs] 1. not planned but done because you suddenly want to do it

2. often doing things without planning to, because you suddenly want to do them

​3. (specialist) happening naturally, without being made to happen

​4. done naturally, without being forced, practised or organized in advance
意味
adolescent [ˌædəˈlesnt] a young person who is developing from a child into an adult 意味
adolescent [ˌædəˈlesnt] a young person who is developing from a child into an adult 意味
disgressive [dī-ˈgre-siv] haracterized by digressions, the act or an instance of leaving the main subject in an extended written or verbal expression of thought : the act or an instance of digressing in a discourse or other usually organized literary work 意味
retrogressive [ˌretrəˈɡresɪv] returning to old-fashioned ideas or methods instead of making progress 意味
sleazy [ˈsliːzi] 1. (of a place) dirty, unpleasant and not socially acceptable, especially because sex is involved

2. (of people) immoral or unpleasant
意味
surly [ˈsɜːli] nfriendly and rude 意味
stealthy [ˈstelθi] doing things quietly and secretly; done quietly and secretly 意味
sagacious [səˈɡeɪʃəs] showing good judgement and understanding 意味
shrewd [ʃruːd] 1. clever at understanding and making judgements about a situation

2. showing good judgement and likely to be right
意味
spiteful [ˈspaɪtfl] behaving in an unkind way in order to hurt or upset somebody 意味
heedless [ˈhiːdləs] heedless (of somebody/something) not paying careful attention to somebody/something 意味
bleak [bliːk] 1. (of a situation) not giving any reason to have hope or expect anything good

2. (of the weather) cold and unpleasant

3. (of a place) exposed, empty, or with no pleasant features
意味
loathsome [ˈləʊðsəm] extremely unpleasant; disgusting 意味
blithe [blaɪð] 1. (disapproving) showing you do not care or are not anxious about what you are doing

2. (literary) happy; not anxious
意味
introvert [ˈɪntrəvɜːt] a quiet person who is more interested in their own thoughts and feelings than in spending time with other people 意味
shatter [ˈʃætə(r)] 1. [intransitive, transitive] to suddenly break into small pieces; to make something suddenly break into small pieces

2. [transitive, intransitive] to destroy something completely, especially somebody’s feelings, hopes or beliefs; to be destroyed in this way

3. [transitive] shatter somebody to make somebody feel extremely shocked and upset
意味
querulous [ˈkwerələs] complaining; showing that you are annoyed 意味
brutal [ˈbruːtl] 1. violent and cruel

2. direct and clear about something unpleasant; not thinking of people’s feelings
意味
pugnacious [pʌɡˈneɪʃəs] having a strong desire to argue or fight with other people 意味
designate [ˈdezɪɡneɪt] 1. [often passive] to say officially that somebody/something has a particular character or name; to describe somebody/something in a particular way

2. to choose or name somebody for a particular job or position

3. [often passive] to show something using a particular mark or sign
意味
indisputable [ˌɪndɪˈspjuːtəbl] that is true and cannot be disagreed with or denied 意味
inviolable [ɪnˈvaɪələbl] that must be respected and not attacked or destroyed 意味
inanimate [ɪnˈænɪmət] 1. not alive in the way that people, animals and plants are

2. dead or appearing to be dead
意味
inert [ɪˈnɜːt] 1. ​(formal) without power to move or act

2. (chemistry) without active chemical or other properties (= characteristics)
意味
clattered [ˈklætə(r)] 1. [intransitive] if hard objects clatter, they knock together and make a loud noise

2. [intransitive] + adv./prep. to move making a loud noise like hard objects knocking together
意味
fettered [ˈfetə(r)] 1. fetter somebody (literary) to limit somebody’s freedom to do what they want

2. fetter somebody to put chains around a prisoner’s feet
意味
cluttered [ˈklʌtəd] cluttered (up) (with somebody/something) covered with, or full of, a lot of things or people, in a way that is untidy 意味
urgent [ˈɜːdʒənt] 1. that needs to be dealt with or happen immediately

2. showing that you think that something needs to be dealt with immediately
意味
compulsory [kəmˈpʌlsəri] that must be done because of a law or a rule 意味
forcible [ˈfɔːsəbl] involving the use of physical force 意味
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