「大人の教養・知識・気付き」を伸ばすブログ

一流の大人(ビジネスマン、政治家、リーダー…)として知っておきたい、教養・社会動向を意外なところから取り上げ学ぶことで“気付く力”を伸ばすブログです。目下、データ分析・語学に力点を置いています。今月(2022年10月)からは多忙につき、日々の投稿数を減らします。

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今日の英語(20221113)

 今日勉強した英語の中で間違えたことや調べたことをメモしておく。

コロケーション

 今回は古沢寛行・小宮山浩光・レコード,カービィ(2004)「コロケーション徹底演習II」(泰文堂)PP. 122-125を参照。


 今回、間違えたのは以下の表現:

  726. A blackout in August, 2003, on the east coast of American effectively curtailed economic activities there for several days.
    米国の東海岸で2003年8月に起きた停電は、そこでの経済活動を数日間事実上縮小した。
  727. The girl's father objected to her going out in an outfit he believed to be in such poor taste that it was almost sleazy.
    その女の子の父親は、彼にとってはだらしないと言える位に下品と思える身なりで彼女が外出するのに反対した。
  728. When my five-year-old son stepped on a rusty nail, we took him to the doctor to get a tetanus shot.
    私の5歳の息子が錆びた釘を踏んだとき、破傷風の予防注射を受けるため私たちは息子を医者へ連れて行った。
  729. When the teacher's voice became hoarse from too much talking, the students joked that he had a "frog in his throat".
    教師の声が喋り過ぎでしわがれると、生徒たちは「先生の喉にカエルがいる」と言ってからかった。
  730. Ever since supporters of the Islamic Revolution in Iran held American citizens captive in Tehran's American Embassy for almost a year, relations between America and Iran have been strained.
    イランのイスラム革命支持者たちがテヘランの米国大使館に米国市民を1年近く人質にして以来、米国とイランの諸関係は緊張状態にある。
  732. When people asked the world-famous strong man the secret of his incredible strength, he replied he didn't know - it was just the way he had been constituted.
    その世界的に有名な筋骨たくましい男が彼の信じられないほどの腕力の秘密を聞かれたとき、自分には分からない、体質的にそのように身体が出来ていたんだと答えた。
  733. One of the most significant factors in predicting many diseases is that of hereditary disposition. If either of your parents suffered from a disease, the chances are much greater that you will also get it.
    多くの病気を予言するのに最も重要な要素の1つは遺伝的性質という要素である。もしあなたの両親のどちらかがある病気にかかったとすると、貴方もその病気にかかる可能性が一段と大きい。
  735. President Roosevelt told Americans in his inaugural address of 1933 that "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself".
    ローズヴェルト大統領は1933年の就任演説で米国人に告げた。「我々が恐れらなければならない唯一のものは恐れそれ自体である。」
  738. Philosophers of art often think of a work of art as analogous to a living organism, capable of growth and vitality.
    芸術の思想家は芸術作品を成長と活力が可能な生物体に似ていると考えることがよくある。
  739. One effect of the ending of the Cold War is that international relations are no longer limited to the oversimplified, ideological dichotomies of "democracy" and "communism".
    冷戦が終わって生じた1つの結果は、国際関係が「民主主義」と「共産主義」という単純化し過ぎたイデオロギー上の二分法にもはや限定されないという事である。
  740. The woman in the witness box refused to answer the prosecutor's question, objecting that his question was purely hypothetical, and hence not relevant to the realities of the case.
    検事の質問は全く仮説上のものであり、したがって事件の事実に関連性が無いと反対して、証人台の女性は検事の質問に答えるのを拒否した。
  741. Opponents of capital punishment in the United States argue that the sentencing and execution of the death penalty are to a large extent arbitrary, depending on the state in which the crime was committed.
    合衆国の死刑反対論者は、死刑の宣告と執行が実行された州に左右され大いに気まぐれなものであると主張する。
  742. The lyrics of country music are often sentimental and even corny, since it may be the most popular form of genuine folk music in America.
    カントリー・ミュージックは米国の最も人気のある純粋な形の大衆音楽なので、その歌詞はしばしば感傷的で陳腐でさえある。
  743. It was a hot and sultry day, though it was already mid-September and everyone was sweating profusely.
    すでに9月の半ばであったが暑くて蒸し蒸しする日だった。そして誰もが汗まみれであった
  744. The dignitaries pulled up in front of the hotel and merged one by one from their jet-black limousines.
    高官たちはホテルの前に乗りつけると、一人また一人と真っ黒な数台のリムジン車から姿を現した。
  745. Serious scientific research into human sexuality is often impeded by public opinion since the topic is frequently controversial and distasteful to those with a conservative mentality.
    人間の性行動の真面目な科学的調査は世論がしばしば妨げとなる。理由は、保守的な考え方をする者にとっては題目がよく議論の的になり、そして不快であるからだ。
  746. At my age, I find that after sitting still for a few hours, for example, in a movie theatre, my leges get stiff and begin to feel numb.
    私の年だと、たとえば、映画館などで数時間坐った後だと両足が硬直し感覚が麻痺し始めるのが分かる。
  747. When we announced we were goingto visit New York City, many people advised us to avoid walking at night in the seedy parts of the city.
    私がニューヨーク市へ行くと告げると、夜はニューヨーク市のいかがわしい場所は歩かない方が良いと多くの人が忠告してくれた。
  748. Finally the woman called police to try to put an end to the threatening and obscene phone calls she had been receiving.
    遂にその女性は、彼女に掛かってきた数々の脅迫的で猥褻な電話を終わらせようと警察に電話をした。
  750. Literary history was made the other day when an obscure manuscript, attributed to Mark Twain, was discovered in an attic.
    過日、マーク・トゥウェインの作と考えられる無名の原稿が屋根裏部屋で発見されたとき、文学史上に残る画期的な事が起きた。

英文解釈

 今回は伊藤和夫(2017)「英文解釈教室 新装版」(研究社)

P. 104の同格構文について*1


6.1 例題(1)   Later on we shall learn something about the Industrial Revolution and about the conflicts that it engendered - social conflicts within the nations and economic conflicts between the nations. Now if we inquire as to the primary cause of the Industrial Revolution which we are about to study, the answer is: science and inventions, and the rapid multiplication of power-driven machines.

  Later on we shall learn something about the Industrial Revolution and about the conflicts that it engendered - social conflicts within the nations and economic conflicts between the nations.
  産業革命に関することや産業革命が引き起こした対立、すなわち国家内における社会的対立および国家間の経済的対立を後に学ぶ。
  Now if we inquire as to the primary cause of the Industrial Revolution which we are about to study, the answer is: science and inventions, and the rapid multiplication of power-driven machines.
  今や、もし私たちが丁度勉強する産業革命の第一義的な理由に関して尋ねれば、その答えは科学と発明、そして動力機関の急激な増加がある。

辞書を引いた語彙

 辞書は

またはを引いています。

単語

語彙
発音

記号
意味・内容
調べた理由
deprive of [dɪˈpraɪv] deprive somebody/something of something​to prevent somebody from having or doing something, especially something important 意味
dismiss [dɪsˈmɪs] 1. to decide that somebody/something is not important and not worth thinking or talking about

2. to put thoughts or feelings out of your mind

3. dismiss somebody (from something) to officially remove somebody from their job

4. dismiss somebody to send somebody away or allow them to leave

5. ​dismiss something (law) to say that a trial or legal case should not continue, usually because there is not enough evidence

6. dismiss somebody (in cricket) to end the innings of a player or team
意味
curtail [kɜːˈteɪl] curtail something to limit something or make it last for a shorter time 意味
sleazy [ˈsliːzi] 1. (of a place) dirty, unpleasant and not socially acceptable, especially because sex is involved

2. (of people) immoral or unpleasant
意味
slimy slaɪmi] 1. ​like or covered with slime

2. (informal, disapproving) (of a person or their manner) polite and extremely friendly in a way that is not sincere or honest
意味

発音
crusty [ˈkrʌsti] 1. (of food) having a hard outer layer

2. (informal) (especially of older people) easily made angry
意味
tetanus [ˈtetnəs] a disease in which the muscles, especially the jaw muscles, become stiff, caused by bacteria entering the body through cuts or wounds 意味
rusty [ˈrʌsti] 1. covered with rust (a red-brown substance that is formed on some metals by the action of water and air)

2. [not usually before noun] (informal) (of a sport, skill, etc.) not as good as it used to be, because you have not been practising
意味
strain [streɪn] 1. [uncountable, countable] pressure on a system or relationship because great demands are being placed on it

2. [countable, uncountable] mental pressure or worry felt by somebody because they have too much to do or manage; something that causes this pressure

3. [uncountable, countable] the pressure that is put on something when a physical force stretches, pushes, or pulls it

4. [countable, uncountable] an injury to a part of your body, such as a muscle, that is caused by using it too much or by twisting it

5. [countable] a particular type of plant or animal, or of a disease caused by bacteria, etc.

6. ​[countable, usually singular] a particular feature of the character of a person or group, or a quality in their manner

7. [countable, usually plural] (formal) the sound of music being played or sung
意味
coarse [kɔːs] 1. (of skin or cloth) rough

2. consisting of relatively large pieces

3. rude and offensive, especially about sex
意味
hoarse [hɔːs] if a person or their voice is hoarse, their voice sounds rough and unpleasant, especially because of a sore throat (= a painful throat because of an infection) 意味
rugged [ˈrʌɡɪd] 1. (of the landscape) not level or smooth and having rocks rather than plants or trees

2. [usually before noun] (approving) (of somebody's face) having strong, attractive features

3. [usually before noun] (of a person) determined to succeed in a difficult situation, even if this means using force or upsetting other people

4. (of equipment, clothing, etc.) strong and designed to be used in difficult conditions
意味
captive [ˈkæptɪv] 1. kept as a prisoner or in a space that you cannot get out of; unable to escape

2. [only before noun] not free to leave a particular place or to choose what you want to do
意味
constricted [kənˈstrɪktɪd] 1. tight or narrow

2. limited in amount, extent, range, etc.
意味
contrived [kənˈtraɪvd] planned in advance and not natural or what somebody claims it is; written or arranged in a way that is not natural or realistic 意味
hereditary [həˈredɪtri] 1. (of a disease or characteristic) given to a child by its parents before it is born

2. that is legally given to somebody’s child, when that person dies

3. holding a rank or title that is hereditary
意味
ancestral [ænˈsestrəl] connected with or that belonged to people in your family who lived a long time ago 意味
transmittable [trænzˈmɪt.ə.bəl] able to be passed or sent from one person, thing, or place to another 意味
introductory [ˌɪntrəˈdʌktəri] 1. written or said at the beginning of something as an introduction to what follows

2. ​intended as an introduction to a subject or an activity for people who have never done it before

3. offered for a short time only, when a product is first on sale
意味
dichotomy [daɪˈkɒtəmi] dichotomy (between A and B) a division or contrast between two groups or things that are completely opposite to and different from each other 意味

発音
fictitious [fɪkˈtɪʃəs] ​invented by somebody rather than true 意味
dictatorial [ˌdɪktəˈtɔːriəl] 1. connected with or controlled by a dictator

2. using power in an unreasonable way by telling people what to do and not listening to their views or wishes
意味
corny [ˈkɔːni] not original; used too often to be interesting or to sound sincere 意味
copious [ˈkəʊpiəs] in large amounts 意味
sully [ˈsʌli] 1. sully something to damage or reduce the value of something

2. sully something to make something dirty
意味
sultry [ˈsʌltri] 1. (of the weather or air) very hot and uncomfortable

2. (especially of a woman) sexually attractive; seeming to have strong sexual feelings
意味
sulky [ˈsʌlki] in a bad mood or not speaking because you are angry about something 意味
profusely [prəˈfjuːsli] ​in large amounts 意味

発音
dignitary [ˈdɪɡnɪtəri] a person who has an important official position 意味
pitchy [ˈpɪtʃɪ] (of singing) varying between being on pitch and being slightly sharp or flat 意味
impede [ɪmˈpiːd] impede something to delay or stop the progress of something 意味
controversial [ˌkɒntrəˈvɜːʃl] causing a lot of angry public discussion and disagreement 意味
disdainful [dɪsˈdeɪnfl] disdainful (of somebody/something) showing the feeling that somebody/something is not good enough to deserve your respect or attention 意味
distasteful [dɪsˈteɪstfl] unpleasant or offensive 意味
dissident [ˈdɪsɪdənt] a person who strongly disagrees with and criticizes their government, especially in a country where this kind of action is dangerous 意味
rigid [ˈrɪdʒɪd] 1. (often disapproving) (of rules, methods, etc.) very strict and difficult to change

2. ​(often disapproving) (of a person) not willing to change their ideas or behaviour

3. (of an object or substance) stiff and difficult to move or bend
意味
stiff [stɪf] 1. difficult to bend or move

2. when a person or a part of their body is stiff, their muscles hurt when they move them

3. thick; difficult to stir (= move around with a spoon)

4. more difficult or severe than usual

5. (of a person or their behaviour) not friendly or relaxed

6. (informal) costing a lot or too much

7. [only before noun] strong; containing a lot of alcohol
意味
snotty [ˈsnɒti] 1. snooty (= treating people as if they are not as good or as important as you)

2. full of or covered in snot
意味
seedy [ˈsiːdi] dirty and unpleasant, possibly connected with bad or illegal activities 意味
snooty [ˈsnuːti] treating people as if they are not as good or as important as you 意味
obsolete [ˈɒbsəliːt] no longer used because something new has been invented 意味
obscene [əbˈsiːn] 1. connected with sex in a way that most people find offensive

2. extremely large in size or amount in a way that most people find unacceptable and offensive
意味
arterial [ɑːˈtɪəriəl] 1. connected with the tubes that carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body

2. connected with a large and important road, river, railway line, etc.
意味
greasy [ˈɡriːsi] 1. covered in a lot of grease or oil

2. (disapproving) (of food) cooked with too much oil or fat

3. (disapproving) (of hair or skin) producing too much natural oil

4. (informal, disapproving) (of people or their behaviour) friendly in a way that does not seem sincere
意味

発音
obscure [əbˈskjʊə(r)] 1. not well known

2. difficult to understand
意味
attic [ˈætɪk] a room or space just below the roof of a house, often used for storing things 意味
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