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大人のための英文法(14/31)

はじめに

 グローバル人材になるならば英語くらいはできなければ、とよく言われる。だったら、一流の、本当の英語を学びたいと個人的に思っている。ということで、本当の「大人のための英語」として英文法を学んでいく。ここではそのメモを書いていきたい。
 参考図書として

を読んでいく。今日は第19章を扱う。

19. 叙想法

 文の内容に対する話しての心的態度を表す動詞の語形を叙法という。叙法には3種類存在する。

    (a) 叙実法(直説法) 事柄を事実として述べる叙法。
    (b) 命令法 命令・依頼等を表す叙法。
    (c) 叙想法(仮定法) 事柄を現実の事実としてではなく

「話し手の心の中で考えられたこと」

として述べる叙法。

19.1 叙想法を用いる場合

 叙想法には、①叙想法現在、②叙想法過去、③叙想法過去完了の3つが存在する。
 叙想法を用いる場合には以下がある:

19.1.1 叙想法現在
  (a) 独立節の中で 若干の定型表現で祈願や呪詛を表す

 ・God save the Queen! 神様が女王を守らせ給わんことを!

 ・Kinsman be hanged! 身内なんて糞くらえ!
  (b) 古英語において 勧誘、または文章体で命令を表す

 ・And looke we friendly on them when they come.

 ・Be it noted that I attempt to follow instructions very carefully.
  (c) 従属節中で lest節(文章体・格式体)

 ・it is my fear lest evil come to the lodge which makes me speak in anxious words.

 ・He was remarkably solicitous lest his guest be disturbed.

 ・She worried lest he should tell someone what had happened.
      条件・譲歩を表す節においてある事柄を「想念」として述べる手法で、格式体のみ

 ・Now, sir, if it be your pleasure, I will follow.

 ・Be that as it may, terrible things clearly happened.(命令の叙想法が譲歩を表す例)
      時の副詞節(※現代英語では用いないのが普通)
      that節:広義の命令表現に続くthat節で用いられる(英では格式体でshouldを付与するのが普通)

 ・He insisted that she leave the room.

 ・The important point is that both be satisfied with adjustment.

 ・I would suggest that you not offend Miss Page any further.
19.1.2 叙想法過去

 通常、「If+主語+過去形/were.., 主語+would/should/could/might +原形」の形で用いられる。

  (a) 独立節中で  ・Would (to God) that were true!

 ・would rather:「むしろ…したい」

   E.g. ’ How about a drink? ’ ‘I would rather have something to eat.’

 ・had better: 強い勧告。shouldよりも緊急性が高い。そのため使い方によっては脅しの意味になる

   E.g. You had better go before it rains.

     We had better not talk about this on the phone.
  (b) 条件節中で (イ)現在の事実に反する仮定

  ・If I were you, I’d be very worried.

(ロ)純粋な仮定

  ・If you had a million dollars, what would you do?
  (c) 従属節中で (イ)I wish/would ratherに続く名詞節中で

(ロ)形容詞節中で

  ・It is time you called me Jamie.

  ・there was too much to say, too many things that were better left unsaid.

(ハ)as if/as though節中で

  ・He speaks/spoke as if he knew everything.

(ニ)譲歩節中で

  ・It was a short interview, if there were any interview at all.
19.1.3 叙想法過去完了

 通常、「If+主語+had+-en.., 主語+would/should/could/might + have+-en」で過去の事実に反する仮定を表す。

   (a) 条件文中で E.g. If I had seen you, I would have invited you home.
   (b) 補部節中で E.g. I wish I had been born in the moon.

  Theo felt as if she had been shot through the heart.
   (c) 現在の事実に反する仮定を表す叙想法過去完了 E.g. Had she lived in our time, picture postcards might have been sold of her as a general.

19.2 if節に相当する語句

 if節以外でも<条件>を表現することが可能である。

   (a) 倒置:「助動詞の過去形+主語」(※格式体) E.g. Were he in charge, he would do differently.

  E.g. Should she be interested, I’ll phone her.
   (b) ifの類義表現 if it were not/ were it not for ...
           if it had not /had it not been for ...
           but for/without ...
           suppose/supposing (that) ...

  E.g. Supposing you were in my place, what would you do?
           Otherwise/or

  E.g. I am tired: otherwise, I would play.
   (c) 条件の意味が文中の語句に含まれている E.g. A producer of plays would have cast him for the role of a miser.

 To hear him talk, you would take him for an American.

 With your assistance I would succeed.

 This same thing, happening in wartime, would amount to disaster.

 Every caress I gave you would be sin.

 Another month and the change would have been complete.

19.3 条件節と帰結節の省略

  例① I would do that for you. (+if you asked me.)
  例② As if I didn’t know that already!
  例③ If only I were better-looking!
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