「大人の教養・知識・気付き」を伸ばすブログ

一流の大人(ビジネスマン、政治家、リーダー…)として知っておきたい、教養・社会動向を意外なところから取り上げ学ぶことで“気付く力”を伸ばすブログです。目下、データ分析・語学に力点を置いています。今月(2022年10月)からは多忙につき、日々の投稿数を減らします。

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今日の英語(20221106)

 今日勉強した英語の中で間違えたことや調べたことをメモしておく。

コロケーション

 今回は古沢寛行・小宮山浩光・レコード,カービィ(2004)「コロケーション徹底演習II」(泰文堂)PP. 99-102を参照。


 今回、間違えたのは以下の表現:

  576. While scientists believe that knowledge can be discovered by empirical observations and testing of the external world, mystics focus on the innermost secrets of the human mind and soul, sometimes that the most useful knowledge comes from within.
    知識は外部の世界を実験的に観察し試すことで発見されると科学者は信じるが、神秘論者は人間の心と魂の最も奥にある秘密に焦点を合わせ、時にはもっとも役に立つ知識は内面から生じると断言する。
  577. Many experts believe that a cure for AIDS will be found some day, but in the immediate future, the best hope for victims is the life-prolonging cocktails which impede and even reverse the progress of the disease.
    エイズの治療法がいつか発見されるだろうと多くの専門家が信じているが、近い将来においては、犠牲者にとって最善の希望は、病気の進行を阻害し逆に戻すことさえするような延命効果のある混合型治療法である。
  580. Despite the historical and linguistic affinities between America and England, there is no doubt that the two cultures are very distinct.
    米国と英国の間にある歴史的および言語的類似点にもかかわらず、二国間の文化に非常な違いがあるのは確実である。
  584. She was certainly very bright but we considered her behaviour too bold to be considered courteous.
    確かに彼女はとても頭が良かったが、彼女の行動はあまりにも不作法で礼儀正しいとは考えられないと私は思った。
  586. Chomsky was a leading pioneer in modern linguistics, whose major contribution established that language acquisition is not consciously learned like other subjects but is an innate faculty of human cognition.
    チョムスキーは現代言語学における先導的な開拓者であった。そして彼の大きな貢献により、言語の習得は他の学課のように意識的に学習するものではなく、人間の認識が持つ生まれ備わった能力であると立証された。
  587. Poets and politicians both understand, but for different reasons, that language is at least as emotional a force in human life as it is a pragmatic one.
    詩人も政治家も、それぞれ異なる理由で、言語は人生において実用的な力であり少なくとも同様に情緒的な力でもあると理解している。
  591. Isaac Newton believed that all things in nature were subject to the law of gravity, a belief not seriously challenged until the discovery of quantum mechanics.
    自然界のすべてのものは重力の法則に従うとアイザック・ニュートンは信じた。この考えは量子力学が発見されるまで重大な挑戦を受けることは無かった。
  593. A contemplative life of study and quiet reflection is not for most people, who need more social interaction; it is suitable for some spiritually-inclined personalities.
    研究と静かな熟考から成る沈思黙想の生き方は一般人向きではない。一般の人はもっと社会とのかかわりあいを必要とする。このような生き方は精神的に心が傾いている人には相応しい。
  595. A leader can be knowledgeable and even brilliant, but if he is not wise, he will still be lacking a necessary quality for greatness.
    指導者たる者は物知りで頭が切れることもあるが、賢明でなければ、卓越差に必要な素質がなお欠けていることになろう。
  596. What passes for "fashionable" among today's youth would have been considered "poor taste" or even "obscene" in the not too distant past.
    今日の若者の間で「素敵」とされるものが、ほんの一昔前だと「趣味が悪い」とか「卑猥」であるとさえ思われたであろう。
  597. The CIA was, to a large extent, responsible for Iran's Islamic Revolution since it was the CIA that installed the tyrannical Shah of Iran on the Irania throne many years ago.
    何年も昔のこと、暴君なシャーを玉座に据えたのはCIAだったので、イランのイスラム革命にCIAは大いに責任があった。
  598. The geography of Iran presents to the visitor a land of striking contrasts, such as barren deserts, fertile green valleys and snow-capped mountains.
    イランの国を訪れる者は、イランの地勢が不毛の砂漠、肥沃な緑の谷、そして頂きが雪に覆われた山々というように顕著な対照をなす国土であることを知る。

英文解釈

 今回は伊藤和夫(2017)「英文解釈教室 新装版」(研究社)

PP. 95-97の倒置形について*1

  In large cities today the workers enjoy more comforts than did the workers of former periods of history.
  大都市で今日、労働者は過去の時代の労働者よりも生活を快適にするものを享受している。
  The Indus River serves the same function as does the Nile is Egypt.
  インダス川はエジプトにおけるナイル川と同じ機能を担う。
  I do not know what I should do for relaxation were it not for the innumerable detective stories.
  無数の推理小説が無かったならば、気晴らしに何をすべきか分からない。
  Edison tries thousands and thousands of ways o do a thing, and never quits, even should it take ten years, until he has either found a way or proved conclusively that it cannot be done.
  エディソンは1つのことを為すのに何千もの方法を試し、解決方法を見出すか、決定的にそれが出来ないと証明するまで、たとえ10年かかっても決して止めない。
  Many a murderer would have remained innocent had he not possessed a knife or a gun.
  多くの殺人者はナイフか銃が手許に無ければ、罪を犯さずにいられただろう。

辞書を引いた語彙

 辞書は

またはを引いています。

単語

語彙
発音

記号
意味・内容
調べた理由
uppermost [ʌpəməʊst] 1. [usually before noun] (formal) higher or nearer the top than other things

2. [not usually before noun] more important than other things in a particular situation
意味
innermost [ˈɪnəməʊst] 1. (also less frequent inmost) most private, personal and secret

2. ​nearest to the centre or inside of something
意味
courteous [ˈkɜːtiəs] polite, especially in a way that shows respect 意味
prompt [prɒmpt] 1. [transitive] to make somebody decide to do something; to cause something to happen

2. [transitive] to encourage somebody to speak by asking them questions or suggesting words that they could say

3. [transitive, intransitive] prompt (somebody) to follow the text of a play and remind the actors what the words are if they forget their lines
意味
perfection [pəˈfekʃn] 1. the state of being perfect

2. the act of making something perfect by doing the final improvements
意味
affinity [əˈfɪnəti] 1. [singular] affinity (for/with somebody/something) / affinity (between A and B) a strong feeling that you understand somebody/something and like them or it

2. [uncountable, countable] affinity (with somebody/something) / affinity (between A and B) a close relationship between two people or things that have similar qualities, structures or features
意味
freakish [ˈfriːkɪʃ] very strange, unusual or unexpected 意味
intramural [ˌɪntrəˈmjʊərəl] taking place within a single institution, especially a school or college 意味
innate [ɪˈneɪt] (of a quality, feeling, etc.) that you have when you are born 意味
erroneously [ɪˈrəʊniəsli] in a way that is not correct or that is based on wrong information 意味
affective [əˈfektɪv] connected with emotions and attitudes 意味
defective [dɪˈfektɪv] 1. having a fault or faults; not perfect or complete

2. (sometimes offensive) having a physical problem with part of the body or the way that it works
意味
boast [bəʊst] 1. [intransitive, transitive] to talk in a way that shows you are too proud of something that you have or can do

2. (not used in the progressive tenses) boast something to have something that is impressive
意味
pedantic [pɪˈdæntɪk] too worried about small details or rules 意味
considerate [kənˈsɪdərət] ​always thinking of other people’s wishes and feelings; careful not to hurt or upset others 意味
contemplative [kənˈtemplətɪv] 1. thinking quietly and seriously about something

2. ​spending time thinking deeply about religious matters
意味
perpetuate [pəˈpetʃueɪt] to make something such as a bad situation, a belief, etc. continue for a long time 意味
perpetrate [ˈpɜːpətreɪt] to commit a crime or do something wrong or evil 意味
obscene [əbˈsiːn] 1. connected with sex in a way that most people find offensive

2. extremely large in size or amount in a way that most people find unacceptable and offensive
意味
fatuous [ˈfætʃuəs] stupid 意味
fastidious [fæˈstɪdiəs] 1. ​being careful that every detail of something is correct

2. ​(sometimes disapproving) not liking things to be dirty or untidy
意味
thoroughgoing [ˌθʌrəˈɡəʊɪŋ] 1. very careful and complete; looking at every detail

2. complete
意味
barren [ˈbærən] 1. (of land or soil) not good enough for plants to grow on it

2. ​(of plants or trees) not producing fruit or seeds

3. ​(old use) (of a woman) not able to have babies

4. (formal) (of a female animal) not able to produce young animals

5. [usually before noun] not producing anything useful or successful
意味
fertile [ˈfɜːtaɪl] 1. (of land or soil) that plants grow well in

2. (of people, animals or plants) that can produce babies, young animals, fruit or new plants

3. ​[usually before noun] that produces good results; that encourages activity

4. [usually before noun] (of a person’s mind or imagination) that produces a lot of new ideas
意味
conclusively [kənˈkluːsɪvli] in a way that proves something, and that is certain and allows no doubt 意味
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