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今日の英語・フランス語(20221204)

 今日勉強した英語・フランス語の中で間違えたことや調べたことをメモしておく*1

英語

英文解釈

 今回は伊藤和夫(2017)「英文解釈教室 新装版」(研究社)

PP. 141-43の意味上の主語について*2


8.1 例題(2)   Men can usefully undertake and properly accomplish a common task only when one of them continually directs the activities of all towards the same end. This is self-evident when actions which must follow a rhythm are involved. It would be useless for a gang of men laying rails or a rowing-crew to exert themselves if a foreman or a coxswain did not control their movements. Every non-directed collective action turns rapidly into confusion and disorder.

  Men can usefully undertake and properly accomplish a common task only when one of them continually directs the activities of all towards the same end.
  人は、そのうちの一人がすべての活動を同じ目的に向けて継続的に指導してはじめて効率的に遂行し共通のことを適正に達成する。
  This is self-evident when actions which must follow a rhythm are involved.
  リズムに従って行われなければならない活動においては自明である。
  It would be useless for a gang of men laying rails or a rowing-crew to exert themselves if a foreman or a coxswain did not control their movements.
  レールを敷いている一団の労働者やボートの漕ぎ手が努力しても、職長や艇長が彼らの活動を統率しなければ無駄であろう。
  Every non-directed collective action turns rapidly into confusion and disorder.
  指導を欠いた集団活動はすべて即座に混乱と混沌に陥る。
  Economic affairs enter into the life of every one of us, the most important economic activity in the life of the ordinary man being the way he earns his living.
  経済活動は私たち全員の生活に入り込んでいるが、普通の人の生活において最も重要な経済活動は生計を立てる方法である。
  Scientific progress is made step by step, each new point that is reached forming a basis for further advances.
  科学的進歩は段階的になされ、それによる新しい到達点はそれぞれ更なる発展の基礎になる。

辞書を引いた語彙

単語
語彙
発音

記号
意味・内容
調べた理由
dovish [ˈdʌvɪʃ] preferring to use peaceful discussion rather than military action in order to solve a political problem 意味
decelerate [ˌdiːˈseləreɪt] 1. [intransitive, transitive] decelerate (something) to reduce the speed at which a vehicle is travelling

2. [intransitive, transitive] decelerate (something) to become or make something become slower
意味
bode well/ill (for somebody/something) [bəʊd] (formal) to be a good/bad sign for somebody/something 意味
counterbalance [ˌkaʊntəˈbæləns] counterbalance something to have an equal but opposite effect to something else 意味
self-evident [ˌself ˈevɪdənt] obvious and needing no further proof or explanation 意味
exert [ɪɡˈzɜːt] 1. exert something to use power or influence to affect somebody/something

2. exert yourself to make a big physical or mental effort
意味
gang [ɡæŋ] 1. an organized group of criminals

2. a group of young people who spend a lot of time together and often cause trouble or fight against other groups

3. (informal) a group of friends who meet regularly

4. an organized group of workers or prisoners doing work together
意味
foreman [ˈfɔːmən] 1. a male worker who is in charge of a group of other factory or building workers

2. a man who acts as the leader of a jury in court
意味
coxswain [ˈkɒksn] 1. ​the person who is in charge of a lifeboat and who controls its direction

2. (also cox) the person who controls the direction of a rowing boat while other people are rowing
意味

発音
scorn [skɔːn] 1. scorn somebody/something to feel or show that you think somebody/something is stupid and you do not respect them or it

2. (formal) to refuse to have or do something because you are too proud
意味
tedious [ˈtiːdiəs] lasting or taking too long and not interesting 意味
incur [ɪnˈkɜː(r)] 1. incur something if you incur something unpleasant, you are in a situation in which you have to deal with it

2. incur something if you incur costs, you have to pay them
意味
ambiguity [ˌæmbɪˈɡjuːəti] 1. [uncountable] the state of having more than one possible meaning

2. [countable] a word or statement that can be understood in more than one way

3. [uncountable, countable] the state of being difficult to understand or explain because of involving many different aspects
意味
stain [steɪn] 1. [countable] a dirty mark on something, that is difficult to remove

2. [uncountable, countable] a liquid used for changing the colour of wood or cloth

3. a stain on something (formal) something that damages a person’s reputation, so that people think badly of them
意味
pest [pest] 1. an insect or animal that destroys plants, food, etc.

2. (informal) an annoying person or thing
意味

フランス語

仏文法

を基に文法を勉強中(前者は冒頭から。後者から末尾から。)。前者はPP. 7-10と後者はPP. 229-30を勉強。

  Ils dînent chez nous.
  彼らは私たちの家で夕食を取る。
  Nous arriverons à l'avance en prenant un taxi.
  タクシーに乗れば、私たちが早めに着く。
  Elle a maigri en mangeant beaucoup de fruits et de légumes tous les jours.
  たくさんの果物と野菜を毎日食べたので、彼女は痩せた。
  Ils ont gagné beaucoup d'argent en vendant leur appartement.
  アパルトマンを売って彼らはたくさんのお金を稼いだ。

辞書を引いた語彙

単語
語彙
意味・内容
à l'avance 前もって、早めに
maigrir 痩せる
tous les jours 毎日、日常

*1:今日からフランス語も追加していく。

*2:http://www.wayaku.jp/study/download/kaisyaku.pdfも参照。

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